All enlistees, upon entering the service, volunteer for a minimum eight-year Military Service Obligation (MSO). [44], Though the United States signed the Korean War Armistice on July 27, 1953, technology brought new promises and threats. Thus, in 1971 the Court held it unconstitutional for a state to punish a man who entered a county courthouse wearing a jacket with the words "Fuck the Draft" visible on it. In 1918, the Supreme Court ruled that the World War I draft did not violate the United States Constitution in the Selective Draft Law Cases. A doctor draft was instituted in August 1950, and the first medical draftees arrived in Korea in … It was the country's first peacetime draft. In colonial times, the Thirteen Colonies used a militia system for defense. ", "FAQ about Health Care Workers and the Draft", Proposed Health care personnel delivery System (HCPDS). A service provided by, Start your Military Service Record Request, Other Methods to Obtain Military Service Records, Access to Official Military Personnel Files (OMPF) - for the General Public, Auxiliary and Organizational Records, Holdings, U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency, Korean War Project:Looking for Korean War Units, State-Level Fatal Casualty Lists sorted Alphabetically by Last Name, Press Releases and Other Records Relating to Korean War Casualties, 1950 - 1953, Korean War Casualty Rosters, 10/25/1953 - 11/24/1953, Records on Korean War Dead and Wounded Army Casualties, 1950 - 1970, Naval Casualty Lists for World War II and Korean War Battles, 1941 - 1956, Korean War Casualty File, 2/13/1950 - 12/31/1953, Press releases of Korean casualties, 1950-1953, U.S. military personnel who died from hostile action (including missing and captured declared dead) in the Korean War, 1950-1957 : Arizona, Korean War and Vietnam War casualties listed at the National Archives, Records of American Prisoners of War During the Korean War, Repatriated American Prisoners of War File, ca. [49][50] The military relied upon this draft-induced volunteerism to make its quotas, especially the Army, which accounted for nearly 95 percent of all inductees during the Vietnam War era. Non-Archival records are those of service members who separated from the military less than 62 years ago. The 1940 law instituted conscription in peacetime, requiring the registration of all men between 21 and 35. Cruz, Barbara C. and Jennifer Marques Patterson. Our nation’s second military draft law, the Selective Service Act, went into effect in 1917 and gave President Woodrow Wilson the authority to conscript men for World War I. [66][70] The existing draft law was expiring at the end of June 1971, but the Department of Defense and Nixon administration decided the draft needed to continue for at least some time. [99], In 1981, several men filed lawsuit in the case Rostker v. Goldberg, alleging that the Military Selective Service Act violates the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment by requiring that men only and not also women register with the Selective Service System. Of the more than 72,000 men registering as conscientious objectors (CO), nearly 52,000 received CO status. Those starting graduate studies in the fall of 1967 were given two semester deferments becoming eligible in June 1968. 1945 - ca. Student soldiers (Korean: 학도병, romanized: Hagdobyeong) were students that fought for South Korea during the Korean War from June 1950 to March 1951. On July 2, 1980, President Jimmy Carter issued Presidential Proclamation 4771 and re-instated the requirement that young men register with the Selective Service System. (Williams-Cairns, "Korean War Memorial" ) Because of the lack of public attention the Korean War received, it has been known as “The Forgotten War.”. [118] Once created, this manpower tool continued to be used through 1972. However most boards allowed Peace Corps Volunteers to complete their two years assignment before inducting them into the service. [62] From a pool of approximately 27 million, the draft raised 2,215,000 men for military service (in the United States, South Vietnam, and elsewhere) during the Vietnam War era. The "poverty draft" is a term describing U.S. military recruiters' purposeful tendency to focus their recruiting efforts on inner-city and poor rural schools. The Selective Service registration requirement was later suspended in April 1975. The Court summarized the history of conscription in England and in colonial America, a history that it read as establishing that the Framers envisioned compulsory military service as a governmental power. This earliest form of conscription involved selective drafts of militiamen for service in particular campaigns. The war began on 25 June 1950 and an armistice was signed on 27 July 1953. Are You Going to be Drafted? Selective Service System. (February 19, 2004). African-Americans in the Korean War. [111]. [24], Ben Salmon was a nationally known political activist who encouraged men not to register and personally refused to comply with the draft procedures. [105], According to the Selective Service System,[106]. The large cohort of Baby Boomers who became eligible for military service during the Vietnam War was responsible[clarification needed] for a steep increase in the number of exemptions and deferments, especially for college students. However, in 1980, President James E. Carter resumed Selective Service registration in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. It also created the system for the "Doctor Draft", aimed at inducting health professionals into military service. The National Personnel Records Center (NPRC)in St. Louis maintains Korean War Official Military Personnel Files (OMPF). [51][52][53] These rates dwindled to 24% in 1972 and 15% in 1973 after the change to a lottery system. Most of these casualties are documented in the Military Index, a FamilySearch file. During the American Revolutionary War, the states sometimes drafted men for militia duty or to fill state Continental Army units, but the central government did not have the authority to conscript except for purposes of naval impressment. [94] Justice William O. Douglas, in voting to hear the appeal in Holmes, agreed that the government had the authority to employ conscription in wartime, but argued that the constitutionality of a draft in the absence of a declaration of war was an open question, which the Supreme Court should address. [8], The United States first employed national conscription during the American Civil War. [89] Refusing to register can also cause a loss of eligibility for federal financial aid for college. On July 12, 1973, a disastrous fire at the NPRC destroyed approximately 16-18 million Official Military Personnel Files. 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