In literature, Urdu was generally used in conjunction with Persian. Its influence, however, does not compare with that…, Urdu, now the chief literary language of Muslim India and Pakistan, borrowed heavily from Persian literature during its classical period in the 18th century. Omissions? So it sometimes becomes very difficult to grasp the true meaning and concept of spoken sentences. Marginal and non-universal vowels are in parentheses. Specifically, the Urdu language directly descends from the Hindustani language, though it is based originally on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi. English: This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. After the conquest of Delhi by the Muslims, the Persian element was grafted which resulted to … Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan 2003. Urdu. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In Asher, 1994; pp. It is closely related to the development of the Nastaʻliq style of Perso-Arabic script. Its first major poet was Amir Khosrow (1253–1325), who composed dohas (couplets), folk songs, and riddles in the newly formed speech, then called Hindvi. InshaAllah Khan is known as the second poet from Lucknow. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". Sameeksha Trust. 1554. It was called the literary standard of Hindi and became Bihar’s official language after it replaced Urdu in 1881. The literary community in northwestern India protested the move and wanted the language to use the local Devanagari script. ", "The poisonous potency of script: Hindi and Urdu", ترتیب وڈیزائننگ ایم پی خاؿ اردولشکری زبان, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Urdu&oldid=994302641, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Language articles without reference field, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Urdu was used later for literature and at present is the mother tongue of most Indian Muslims and their brethren in Pakistan. The History of the Urdu Language. "SUBCRIBE" - "LIKE" - "COMMENT" For watching Our Latest Videos Click This link: https://goo.gl/1MKT8N Thanks For Watching Us. Various theories have been given to explain it. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani. Urdu language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. Because of this, a sectarian divide was established. This mixed speech was variously called Hindvi, Zaban-e-Hind, Hindi, Zaban-e-Delhi, Rekhta, Gujari, Dakkhani, Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla, Zaban-e-Urdu, or just Urdu, literally ‘the language of the camp.’ Major Urdu writers continued to refer to it as Hindi or Hindvi until the beginning of the 19th century, although there is evidence that it was called Hindustani in the late 17th century. Corrections? Modern Standard Urdu, once commonly known as a variant of Hindustani (ہندوستانی), a colloquial language combining the modified Sanskrit words found in Hindi with words (لفظ/lafz, masc. Khan, M. H. 1969. The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. One sound in the stops category, the glottal /q/, has also been retained from Perso-Arabic. In literature, Urdu was usually used along side Persian. It is the language that the Mughal and Sultans of Delhi used during their rule in Delhi. The Urdu language is an Indo-European language, stemming from the Khariboli branch of language. This map shows that Urdu is not spoken by people of any specific area in Pakistan (the former West Pakistan). The word ‘ Urdu ‘ comes from Turkish word ‘ Ordu ‘ meaning ‘ Army ‘ or ‘Lashkar ‘. London: Routledge. See more. Notably, Urdu and Hindi are mutually intelligible. Arabic is the language of the Qurʾān (or Koran, the sacred book of Islam) and the religious language of all Muslims. "Tareekh-e-Islam" (History of Islam) is Written by Maulana Akbar Shah Najeebabadi. Urdu language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. Hindi and Urdu are closely related and they share similar grammar an… 221–. Just like everything else in this world, there are some certain things that happened in Urdu language for the first time. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). One distinction is that Urdu uses more Perso-Arabic prefixes and suffixes than Hindi; examples include the prefixes dar- ‘in,’ ba-/baa- ‘with,’ be-/bila-/la- ‘without,’ and bad- ‘ill, miss’ and the suffixes -dar ‘holder,’ -saz ‘maker’ (as in zinsaz ‘harness maker’), -khor ‘eater’ (as in muftkhor ‘free eater’), and -posh ‘cover’ (as in mez posh ‘table cover’). This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. noun) in the world. Mughals recruited large numbers of Indian Muslims in their army. One of the first most eminent poets to make use of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro, who can be called the father of the Urdu language. Significant speech communities exist in the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States as well. Urdu itself is a Turkish word that means army camp. Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Download PDF & Read books in parts and episodes for your convenience. Now Urdu became popular and replaced Persian as the language of the educated masses. Springer. One of the most eminent earliest poets who made usage of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who can be called the father of Urdu language. Hindustani. It was a language that was widely used and understood by Muslims. Urdu has an extensive history and association with Muslims. Urdu. An authentic Islamic history book complete part 1 in Urdu language. Language Distribution of Modern-day Pakistan. Urdu is the official language of Pakistan as well as Jammu and Kashmir in India. History of Urdu A couple of weeks ago, there was a very interesting article in the Economic Times that gave the break up of languages spoken by the people of Pakistan. History of the Urdu Language. According to Muhammad Husain Azad, Urdu language was born as a result of grafting of Persian elements on the Brijbhash a, a dialect of western Hindi. Thus we find that the Urdu language was enriched from generation to generation and … 2000. Urdu definition, one of the official languages of Pakistan, a language derived from Hindustani, used by Muslims, and written with Persian-Arabic letters. Urdu is accepted by the Kashmiri Muslims, even though it’s considered to be a non-native dialect. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.). Updates? An Urdu translation of the Koran was made as late as 1791. However, in 1952, when Pakistan declared Urdu its national language, it was hugely opposed by the people of East Pakistan (the Bangladeshi). Urdu is one of the principal languages spoken in Jammu and Kashmir in India. Marginal and non-universal phonemes are in parentheses. Urdu was believed to have developed in 11th century in the Delhi Sultanate, Urdu is evolved from Apabramsa of Shauraseni Prakrit, Urdu is a major form of Hindustani, The origin of the name Urdu is the Chagatai language 's word for army, urdu. It became a formal linguistic division when Pakistan and India separately gained independence. Global Voices, "Proposal to Encode the Kaithi Script in ISO/IEC 10646", "Urdu Bharti: नौकरी के लिए भटक रहे हैं 4 हजार उर्दू शिक्षक, कोर्ट कोर्ट खेल रही है सरकार. Ohala, M. 1972. Urdu developed in the 12th century ce from the regional Apabhramsha of northwestern India, serving as a linguistic modus vivendi after the Muslim conquest. However Mughals mixed them to a great extent. Urdu Language History- In This Course We Will Discuss Urdu Language History Chapterwise , urdu zaban ki tareekh in urdu, history of urdu language and literature, urdu zaban ki ahmiyat This theory is difficult to accept because the author has offered too simple an explanation for the Urdu. It was based on the language spoken in the region around Delhi, and it was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian, as well as Turkish. So in order to help you in checking your knowledge about this topic, given below is a online quiz about First in Urdu language history. Economic and Political Weekly. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Urdu does not retain the complete range of Perso-Arabic consonants, despite its heavy borrowing from that tradition. Efforts were also made to purify the language by excluding the unfamiliar words and expressions of the Deccani. 1975. 1998. Urdu is spoken as a first language by nearly 70 million people and as a second language by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India. It’s about a thousand years old Ab’ul Hasan Yamīn al-Dīn Khusrow (better known as Amir Khusrow) is said to be the first Urdu poet and Khusrau’s poetry is still sung today at Sufi shrines throughout Pakistan. In Z. Imam (Ed.). But later on, Hindus felt that Urdu is getting very popular and the script of Urdu is a foreign script. Urdu started developing in north India around Delhi in about the 12th century. pp. In Asher, 1994; pp. Urdu is the main dialect used in political, religious, education, and media discourses. They share the same Indo-Aryan base and are so similar in phonology and grammar that they appear to be one language. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. Please ? Turks largely maintained contingents of Turks, Afghans and Indian coverts but keep them separate. Azim, Anwar. The Muslim soldiers and people in Eastern Persia used it as an integrated communication tool during their subjugation of Ancient India. Although both Urdu and Hindi typically mark the plural by changing the singular suffix -aa to -ee, Urdu uses -aat in some cases, such as kaagazaat ‘papers,’ jawaharaat ‘jewels,’ and makaanaat ‘houses.’ In addition, where Hindi and Urdu both use the suffix -ka ‘of’ in many constructions, Urdu marks the genitive ‘of’ with -e(e), as in subhe-azadi ‘the morning of freedom’ and khoon-e-jigar ‘the blood of heart.’. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Dua, Hans R. 1992. See Article History. History stands as the most effective and valuable source of putting nation on the course of progress and prosperity and saving them from the path of disgrace and degradation. Hindi was used by Hindus and the Muslims used Urdu. The Urdu writers also adopted the Persian forms and themes in their works. However, it is the native language of less than 1% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir. (Hindustani now refers to a simplified speech form that is the Indian subcontinent’s largest lingua franca.). The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India. Phonologically, the Urdu sounds are the same as those of Hindi except for slight variations in short vowel allophones. It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India. Initially there was Urdu, which evolved during the time of Muslim Rule in India, as said in the army camps when people from all over India use to interact. Ramkrishna Mukherjee (2018). Urdu is closely related to Hindi, a language that originated and developed in the Indian subcontinent. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Urdu-language. 4863–4864. Urdu, distinguished from Hindi by its script and vocabulary, is … …Islām created a new language, Urdu (from Persian: Camp), based on Hindi; Urdu was the lingua franca of the army. One of the Official Language of India. Urdu shares its origins with Hindi, sometimes referred to as a ‘sister’ language of Urdu due to the similar grammar base that they share. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.). The word ‘Urdu’ is derived from the Turkish word ‘ordu’ which means ‘army’ or ‘camp’. Urdu language and literature facts and figures. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." Urdu Muhavare Kahawatain are usually called as Zarbul Imsaal. By the end of the thirteenth century, it was used among Muslim armies. The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. It came into existence in Central Asia around the 1600’s. Literary Arabic, usually called Classical Arabic, is essentially the form of the language found in the Qurʾān, with some modifications necessary for its use in modern times; it is uniform throughout the Arab world. Where is Urdu spoken? Their distinction is most marked in terms of writing systems: Urdu uses a modified form of Perso-Arabic script known as Nastaliq (nastaʿlīq), while Hindi uses Devanagari. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." Alam, Muzaffar. Official language of Moghuls was Persian, logically this was written in Persian script. Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. Muhammad Husain Azad maintains that Brij Bhasha, a dialect of Western Hindi, is the basic language. 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